A number of positive parenting programs have been shown to be effective in Australia.
A number of positive parenting programs have been shown to be effective in Australia. These include:
• Triple P
Triple P is aimed at parents of children with behavioural problems aged 2–12 years. Triple P is a widely implemented Australian program, with numerous variations existing. The program aims to prevent behavioural, emotional and developmental problems in children by enhancing the knowledge, skills and confidence of parents. There is strong evidence of effectiveness for Triple P for various delivery modes, including individual and group, standard and enhanced.
Stepping Stones is a variation of Triple P for parents of children aged 2–12 years with a disability and behavioural problems. It has strong evidence of effectiveness.
There are a number of other programs also supported (to varying degrees) by the evidence.. See the Parenting Research Centre’s Evidence review: An analysis of the evidence for parenting programs in Australia for details.
We encourage Local Drug Action Teams (LDATs) to link community organisations with existing positive parenting programs that have been shown to work.
Be mindful that the way that positive parenting programs are delivered has an impact on desired outcomes. When reviewing existing parenting programs, consider Critical considerations for the delivery of positive parenting programs (below).
Attention to how a program is delivered or implemented is as important as what is delivered when it comes to your project’s outcomes.
|Appropriateness of project aims and outcomes||Is the program based on a clearly defined theory of change?|
|Are there clear project aims?|
|Are there clear intended outcomes of the project that match your desired outcomes?|
|Targeted participants||Is the target population of the project identified and does it match our intended target population?|
|What are the eligibility requirements of participants in your program (e.g. the age of ‘parents’ or children, type of person, presenting problem, gender)?|
|Delivery setting||What are your program delivery setting options (e.g. group, individual, self-administered, home-based, centre-based)?|
|Is there flexibility in delivery modes that suit our service context?|
|Costs||What are the costs to purchase the project (if applicable)?|
|What are the costs to train staff in the program?|
|Are there ongoing costs associated with purchasing manuals and technical assistance (e.g. coaching and supervision of staff)?|
|What are the costs to implement the program with families (in terms of staff time, resources to deliver, travel cost to agency, travel cost to families, costs to families in terms of time off work and childcare)?|
|Accessibility||Are the materials, trainers and experts available to provide technical assistance (i.e. training, coaching and supervision) to staff who will deliver the program?|
|Is the program developer accessible for support during implementation of the program?|
|Does the program come with adequate supporting documentation? For instance, are the content and methods of the program well documented (e.g. in provider training courses and user manuals); are the content and methods standardised to control quality of service delivery?|
|Is the program content and materials suited to the professionals delivering it, or the parents you are working with(e.g. the reading level of materials, amount of text to read or write, use of complex terminology)?|
|Technical assistance required||What are staff training needs (e.g. frequency, duration, location, cost)?|
|What amount of ongoing technical assistance is required (including top-up training, coaching or supervision)?|
|Ensuring quality delivery||How will you ensure fidelity or quality assurance in terms of the delivery of the project’s components to families? That is, how well do practitioners need to demonstrate use of the program either during training or while they are working with families (e.g. are there tests, checklists or observations that they need to perform during training; are there certain things they need to do to demonstrate to trainers that they are using the program correctly, such as video-taped sessions, diaries, checklists about their skills or use of the program with families)?|
|Are there certain program components that must be delivered to families? That is, if they don't do X, they are not actually using the program as intended.|
|What are the program dosage or quantity requirements for effective results (i.e. how often and for how long do families need to receive the program)? Can our service meet those requirements?|
|Data and measurement of effectiveness||How is progress towards goals, milestones and outcomes tracked?|
|What are the requirements for data collection (i.e. what measures are recommended, how often are they to be administered, who can administer them)?|
|How accessible and relevant are the developer-recommended evaluation tools (ease of access, cost, ease of administration and scoring, relevance to Australian context)?|
|Staff selection||What are the necessary staff qualifications or skill requirements (i.e. who can deliver the program)? Does our service have such staff or can our service acquire such staff?|
|Languages||What language/s is the program available in and does that match our client population?|
|Is the program relevant and accessible to particular cultural and language groups (e.g. Indigenous families)?|
Communities face a number of challenges and barriers when implementing evidence-informed positive parenting programs, including:
· An evidence-based program may not exist for the communities’ identified needs, target audience, services and cultural context
· The monetary cost of an evidence-informed program may be too high
· Deciding the extent to which a program should be adapted (if indeed it’s possible to fit their context) and, if attempted, how it should be adapted to retain the essential project elements and effectiveness.
Some example objectives for positive parenting programs are provided below. Groups can develop their own objectives, although you may find these a useful starting point.
· Engage with community organisations over a three-month period
· Support community organisations to take action to address alcohol and other drug harms in the next 12 months
· Increase parents’ knowledge of early-childhood development
· Strengthen parent-child relationships by increasing the number of positive interactions between parents and children
· Enhanced social and emotional development and wellbeing of children
· Establish two new partnerships with community organisations in the next 12 months.
Communities that are delivering existing positive parenting programs such as Triple P can use and/or adapt the objectives already established for these programs.
Strong partnerships are critical to your success in preventing alcohol and other drug harms in the community.
LDATs can work with a variety of different community partners to deliver positive parenting programs, such as family support services, organisations working in early childhood development and other organisations that work directly with children and/or parents.
LDAT partners can support positive parenting programs in many ways, including delivering programs, promoting programs, recruiting parents, providing expert trainers, financial support, and much more.
The specific program being delivered may influence the type of individuals, networks and organisations that your group partners with.
Partners may include:
· Individual parents
· Maternal Child Health Nurses
· Parents groups
· Childcare providers, including long-day care, family day care, occasional care
· Primary schools and their staff, including principals, teachers, student services consultants (counsellors) and administrative staff
· General practitioners
· Community health centres and neighbourhood houses
· Local providers of activities for 0-5 children (e.g. music, swimming, gymbaroo, mums and bubs groups, indoor play centres)
· Walking groups
· Major employers and workplaces
· Local council.
All positive parenting projects need to be adequately resourced. Below is an indicative list of the resources required for community organisations to deliver their own positive parenting projects. LDATs may be able to support community organisations by providing some of these resources or linking these organisations to other partners who can provide additional support.
· Basic administrative tools incl. access to stationery and other office supplies, printers, phones, printing, a workspace for administrative duties
· Venue/s for positive parenting sessions
· Funds to undertake police checks or ‘working with children’ checks (where necessary)
· Knowledge/materials and/or funds to enable the training of staff
· Knowledge/materials and/or funds to develop promotional material to promote positive parenting programs
· Personnel time to liaise with community organisations (e.g. attend meetings, provide advice etc.)
· Insurance and liability coverage (where appropriate).
 Parenting Research Centre 2012, Evidence review: an analysis of the evidence for parenting programs in Australia